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 Clay may be a fine-grained natural soil containing clay minerals. Those clay minerals are usually silica, alumina, or magnesia or both and water. Sometimes potassium, sodium and calcium are present too. Clay develops plasticity when wet but becomes hard and brittle when dried. this can be because of the way the water molecules surround the clay particles. Clay minerals are white most of the time but sometimes iron oxide makes it a red or brownish colour. Clay is that the oldest known ceramic material dating back as far as 14,000 BC.



Clay has such a good importance and extensive uses. Here are a number of those uses:

• Modelling - Modelling clay is to be used in art and handicraft. Clay gets modelled into pottery for adornment or to be used. Clay is additionally accustomed make cooking pots, dishware, art objects and even musical instruments.

• Industrial - Clay is in use in many industrial processes that we dont even realise. Clay soils provide an environment for many plants to grow and thrive. it's also used for paper making and chemical filtering.

• Medicine - the utilization of clay for medicinal purposes dates back to the prehistoric ages. An example of this is often Armenian bole that's common within the treatment of an dyspepsia. Nowadays it's common for people to use clay masks or take a clay bath to rejuvenate their skin. Animals like pigs and parrots also are known to ingest clay for its medicinal purposes.

• Construction - Clay is extremely useful in construction. Clay is one in all the oldest building materials on Earth. commonest in construction is bricks and cement production. Clay is additionally useful within the construction of walls and floor tiles. it's also known to own become employed in mortar in brick chimneys and stone walls.



There are advantages to the employment of clay, and that they are:

 Clay is flexible and gets used for a spread of applications

 Energy-efficient as its insulation properties mean reduced energy consumption of clay buildings

 Durable artifact that's robust and stable, their lifespan is over 100 years

 Natural material so better for the earth

 Friendly to the economy as clay building materials are quick to form

 Maintenance and repair costs are low for clay materials as they're weatherproof

 Clay is aesthetic, it is rough or smooth and a range of colors



There are disadvantages of clay and these are as follows:

 Clay is slow warming in spring

 Slow draining because it retains moisture

 Lots of topsoil gets employed in mass construction of bricks

 High demand for these bricks means extensive loss of forests being dug up to search out topsoil needed

 With demand so high the value for these is rising at a rapid rate

 Digging for clay has resulted in wearing away and damage to vegetation. this is often resulting in serious damage to the environment.



With what proportion damage is occurring to our planet with the very high demand for clay it's not worthwhile anymore. Deforestation may be a very big issue on our planet and with clay meaning trees must be dug up, it’s group action worse. If clay was to induce used on a way smaller scale it should are worthwhile.

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